Cosimo de Medici as a Young Boy by Titan Cosimo I de Medici by Jacopo Carucci,called Pontormo, Eleonora di Toledo,wife of Cosimo I by Agnolo. Unser italienisches Restaurant liegt in Rapperswil SG. Wir freuen uns auf Sie. Die Familie der Medici aus Florenz bildete vom bis Jahrhundert eine einflussreiche italienische Dynastie, aus der Großherzöge der Toskana, drei Päpste und zwei Königinnen von Frankreich hervorgingen. Die Medici erwarben ihren Reichtum im.
Die Medici: Geld, Macht & MordMaria de´ Medici. Since the early Renaissance the foremost artists and workshops in Florence had worked for the Medici. In , Cosimo I became. LORENZO DE' MEDICI: "Frustration. Florenz wäre nichts ohne die Medici - eine beliebige Provinzstadt. Seit Jahren lebt man dort vom Erbe der Medici, aber. Cosimo de Medici as a Young Boy by Titan Cosimo I de Medici by Jacopo Carucci,called Pontormo, Eleonora di Toledo,wife of Cosimo I by Agnolo.
Di Medici Accession to power VideoThe Rise and Fall of the Medici Family
Drei Jahre nach der Antragsinitiative des AFET Di Medici seiner KooperationspartnerInnen zieht der Tao Jie eine Bilanz Di Medici Glossibox Umgang der Abgeordneten des Deutschen Bundestages mit dem Thema Situation von Kindern psychisch kranker Eltern. - Das könnte Sie auch interessierenIhr Palazzo wurde geplündert, ihr Vermögen konfisziert.
There a year-old pupil attracted his attention and was brought up in the palace like a son of the family; it was Michelangelo.
On the recommendation of Pico della Mirandola, Lorenzo permitted the Dominican monk Girolamo Savonarola to preach at San Marco in He mounted the pulpit on August 1 and launched an unceasing deluge of denunciations of the Medici, the papacy, and the whole of Christianity.
He was buried in San Lorenzo, where the grandiose tomb that his son Giovanni, who later became Pope Leo X , had planned was never executed.
His tombstone passes almost unnoticed at the side of the monuments erected by Michelangelo to Giuliano, one of his sons, and to his grandson Lorenzo, both very insignificant persons.
Lorenzo the Magnificent died at the very moment when a new historical era was beginning. Six months later Christopher Columbus was to reach the New World.
And two years later the foolish Italian expedition of the French king Charles VIII was to plunge the peninsula into a half century of warfare and strife.
Lorenzo de' Medici Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
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Heath and Company. Lorenzo de' Medici: Florence's Great Leader and Patron of the Arts. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. April Blood: Florence and the Plot Against the Medici.
The Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age — London: Orion Publishing Group. The Rise and Decline of the Medici Bank, — Harvard University Press.
The Society of Renaissance Florence: A Documentary Study. The Medici Women: Gender and Power in Renaissance Florence.
Aldershot: Ashgate. Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes Oxford , p. Cuvier's History of the Natural Sciences: Nineteen lessons from the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries.
The Late Medieval Age of Crisis and Renewal, A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. History World. Retrieved 17 May PC Gamer. Future US, Inc.
USA Today. Penske Business Media, LLC. Retrieved 11 August Retrieved 8 March House of Medici. Cosimo "The Elder" Piero "The Gouty" Lorenzo "The Magnificent" Piero "The Brief" Giovanni, Pope Leo X Giuliano Lorenzo II Giulio Clement VII Ippolito Alessandro "The Moor".
Alessandro "The Moor" Cosimo I. Cosimo I Francesco I Ferdinando I Cosimo II Ferdinando II Cosimo III Gian Gastone.
Caterina Maria. Leo X Clement VII Leo XI. Filippo Bernardo Antonio Giuliano Zanobi. Giovanni delle Bande Nere Don Giovanni Mattias.
Genealogical tables of the House of Medici. Festina Lente. Clement VII's tumultuous pontificate was dominated by a rapid succession of political crises — many long in the making — that resulted in the sack of Rome by the armies of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in and rise of the Salviati, Altoviti and Strozzi as the leading bankers of the Roman Curie.
From the time of Clement's election as pope in until the sack of Rome, Florence was governed by the young Ippolito de' Medici future cardinal and vice-chancellor of the Holy Roman Church , Alessandro de' Medici future duke of Florence , and their guardians.
In , after allying himself with Charles V, Pope Clement VII succeeded in securing the engagement of Charles V's daughter Margeret of Austria to his illegitimate nephew reputedly his son Alessandro de' Medici.
Clement also convinced Charles V to name Alessandro as Duke of Florence. Thus began the reign of Medici monarchs in Florence, which lasted two centuries.
After securing Alessandro de' Medici's dukedom, Pope Clement VII married off his first cousin, twice removed, Catherine de' Medici , to the son of Emperor Charles V's arch-enemy, King Francis I of France — the future King Henry II.
This led to the transfer of Medici blood, through Catherine's daughters, to the royal family of Spain through Elisabeth of Valois , and the House of Lorraine through Claude of Valois.
In , following a lengthy illness, Pope Clement VII died — and with him the stability of the Medici's "senior" branch. In , Ippolito Cardinal de' Medici died under mysterious circumstances.
In , Alessandro de' Medici married Charles V's daughter, Margaret of Austria; however, the following year he was assassinated by a resentful cousin, Lorenzino de' Medici.
The deaths of Alessandro and Ippolito enabled the Medici's "junior" branch to lead Florence. Another outstanding figure of the 16th-century Medici family was Cosimo I, who rose from relatively modest beginnings in the Mugello to attain supremacy over the whole of Tuscany.
Against the opposition of Catherine de' Medici , Paul III and their allies, he prevailed in various battles to conquer Florence's hated rival Siena and found the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.
Cosimo purchased a portion of the island of Elba from the Republic of Genoa and based the Tuscan navy there. He died in , succeeded by his eldest surviving son Francesco , whose inability to produce male heirs led to the succession of his younger brother, Ferdinando , upon his death in Francesco married Johanna of Austria , and with his consort produced Eleonora de' Medici , Duchess of Mantua, and Marie de' Medici , Queen of France and Navarre.
Through Marie, all succeeding French monarchs bar the Napoleons were descended from Francesco. Ferdinando eagerly assumed the government of Tuscany.
He commanded the draining of the Tuscan marshlands, built a road network in southern Tuscany and cultivated trade in Livorno.
The Spanish reaction was to construct a citadel on their portion of the island of Elba. Henry explicitly stated that he would defend Tuscany from Spanish aggression, but later reneged, after which Ferdinando was forced to marry his heir, Cosimo, to Maria Maddalena of Austria to assuage Spain where Maria Maddalena's sister Margaret was the incumbent Queen consort.
Ferdinando also sponsored a Tuscan expedition to the New World with the intention of establishing a Tuscan colony, an enterprise that brought no result for permanent colonial acquisitions.
Despite all of these incentives for economic growth and prosperity, the population of Florence at the dawn of the 17th century was a mere 75,, far smaller than the other capitals of Italy: Rome, Milan, Venice, Palermo and Naples.
Ferdinando, although no longer a cardinal, exercised much influence at successive conclaves. In , Ferdinando succeeded in getting his candidate, Alessandro de' Medici, elected Pope Leo XI.
He died the same month, but his successor, Pope Paul V , was also pro-Medici. Tuscany was overrun with religious orders, not all of whom were obliged to pay taxes.
Ferdinando died in , leaving an affluent realm; his inaction in international affairs, however, would have long-reaching consequences down the line.
In France, Marie de' Medici was acting as regent for her son, Louis XIII. Louis repudiated her pro-Habsburg policy in She lived the rest of her life deprived of any political influence.
Ferdinando's successor, Cosimo II , reigned for less than 12 years. He married Maria Maddalena of Austria, with whom he had his eight children, including Margherita de' Medici , Ferdinando II de' Medici , and an Anna de' Medici.
He is most remembered as the patron of astronomer Galileo Galilei , whose treatise, Sidereus Nuncius , was dedicated to him.
Cosimo's elder son, Ferdinando, was not yet of legal maturity to succeed him, thus Maria Maddalena and his grandmother, Christina of Lorraine, acted as regents.
Their collective regency is known as the Turtici. Maria Maddelana's temperament was analogous to Christina's, and together they aligned Tuscany with the papacy , re-doubled the Tuscan clergy, and allowed the heresy trial of Galileo Galilei to occur.
In , they banned any Tuscan subject from being educated outside the Grand Duchy, a law later overturned, but resurrected by Maria Maddalena's grandson, Cosimo III.
Grand Duke Ferdinado was obsessed with new technology, and had a variety of hygrometers, barometers, thermometers, and telescopes installed in the Palazzo Pitti.
Tuscany participated in the Wars of Castro the last time Medicean Tuscany proper was involved in a conflict and inflicted a defeat on the forces of Pope Urban VIII in Ferdinando died on 23 May afflicted by apoplexy and dropsy.
He was interred in the Basilica of San Lorenzo , the Medici's necropolis. Ferdinando's marriage to Vittoria della Rovere produced two children: Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Francesco Maria de' Medici, Duke of Rovere and Montefeltro.
Upon Vittoria's death in , her allodial possessions, the Duchies of Rovere and Montefeltro , passed to her younger son. An exceedingly discontented pairing, this union produced three children, notably Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, Electress Palatine , and the last Medicean Grand Duke of Tuscany, Gian Gastone de' Medici.
Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine , Anna Maria Luisa's spouse, successfully requisitioned the dignity Royal Highness for the Grand Duke and his family in , despite the fact that they had no claim to any kingdom.
The Medici lacked male heirs, and by , the grand ducal treasury was virtually bankrupt. Upon the death of his first son, Cosimo contemplated restoring the Florentine republic, either upon Anna Maria Luisa's death, or on his own, if he predeceased her.
The restoration of the republic would entail resigning Siena to the Holy Roman Empire, but, regardless, it was vehemently endorsed by his government.
Europe largely ignored Cosimo's plan. Only Great Britain and the Dutch Republic gave any credence to it, and the plan ultimately died with Cosimo III in On 4 April , Great Britain, France and the Dutch Republic also later, Austria selected Don Carlos of Spain , the elder child of Elisabeth Farnese and Philip V of Spain , as the Tuscan heir.
By , the electress was not even acknowledged as heiress, and Cosimo was reduced to spectator at the conferences for Tuscany's future.
However, these portions of his proclamation were completely ignored, and he died a few days later. Gian Gastone despised the electress for engineering his catastrophic marriage to Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg ; while she abhorred her brother's liberal policies, he repealed all of his father's anti-Semitic statutes.
Gian Gastone revelled in upsetting her. The Ruspanti , Gian Gastone's decrepit entourage, loathed the electress, and she them.
Duchess Violante of Bavaria , Gian Gastone's sister-in-law, tried to withdraw the grand duke from the sphere of influence of the Ruspanti by organising banquets.
His conduct at the banquets was less than regal; he often vomited repeatedly into his napkin, belched, and regaled those present with socially inappropriate jokes.
The bed, often smelling of faeces , was occasionally cleaned by Violante. In , following the War of the Polish Succession , Don Carlos was disbarred from Tuscany, and Francis III of Lorraine was made heir in his stead.
Gian Gastone died on 9 July , surrounded by prelates and his sister. Anna Maria Luisa was offered a nominal regency by the Prince de Craon until the new grand duke could peregrinate to Tuscany, but declined.
Anna Maria Luisa signed the Patto di Famiglia "family pact" on 31 October In collaboration with the Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke Francis of Lorraine, she willed all the personal property of the Medici to the Tuscan state, provided that nothing was ever removed from Florence.
The "Lorrainers", as the occupying forces were called, were popularly loathed, but the regent, the Prince de Craon, allowed the electress to live unperturbed in the Palazzo Pitti.
She occupied herself with financing and overseeing the construction of the Basilica of San Lorenzo , started in by Ferdinando I , at a cost to the state of 1, crowns per week.
The Florentines grieved her,  and she was interred in the crypt that she helped to complete, San Lorenzo. The extinction of the main Medici dynasty and the accession in of Francis Stephen , Duke of Lorraine and husband of Maria Theresa of Austria , led to Tuscany's temporary inclusion in the territories of the Austrian crown.
The line of the Princes of Ottajano , an extant branch of the House of Medici who were eligible to inherit the grand duchy of Tuscany when the last male of the senior branch died in , could have carried on as Medici sovereigns but for the intervention of Europe's major powers, which allocated the sovereignty of Florence elsewhere.
As a consequence, the grand duchy expired and the territory became a secundogeniture of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. The first grand duke of the new dynasty, Francis I, was a great-great-great-grandson of Francesco I de' Medici, thus he continued the Medicean Dynasty on the throne of Tuscany through the female line.
The Habsburgs were deposed in favor of the House of Bourbon-Parma in themselves deposed in , but were later restored at the Congress of Vienna.
Tuscany became a province of the United Kingdom of Italy in However, several extant branches of the House of Medici survive, including the Princes of Ottajano , the Medici Tornaquinci,  and the Verona Medici Counts of Caprara and Gavardo.
The greatest accomplishments of the Medici were in the sponsorship of art and architecture , mainly early and High Renaissance art and architecture.
The Medici were responsible for a high proportion of the major Florentine works of art created during their period of rule. Their support was critical, since artists generally only began work on their projects after they had received commissions.
Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici, the first patron of the arts in the family, aided Masaccio and commissioned Filippo Brunelleschi for the reconstruction of the Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence , in Cosimo the Elder's notable artistic associates were Donatello and Fra Angelico.
Indeed, Lorenzo was an artist in his own right and an author of poetry and song; his support of the arts and letters is seen as a high point in Medici patronage.
After Lorenzo's death, the puritanical Dominican friar Girolamo Savonarola rose to prominence, warning Florentines against excessive luxury.
Under Savonarola's fanatical leadership, many great works were "voluntarily" destroyed in the Bonfire of the Vanities February 7, The following year, on 23 May , Savonarola and two young supporters were burned at the stake in the Piazza della Signoria, the same location as his bonfire.
In addition to commissions for art and architecture, the Medici were prolific collectors and today their acquisitions form the core of the Uffizi museum in Florence.
In architecture, the Medici were responsible for some notable features of Florence, including the Uffizi Gallery , the Boboli Gardens , the Belvedere , the Medici Chapel and the Palazzo Medici.
Later, in Rome, the Medici popes continued in the family tradition of patronizing artists in Rome. Pope Leo X would chiefly commission works from Raphael , whereas Pope Clement VII commissioned Michelangelo to paint the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel just before the pontiff's death in Cosimo in turn patronized Vasari , who erected the Uffizi Gallery in and founded the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno — "Academy of the Arts of Drawing" in Although none of the Medici themselves were scientists, the family is well known to have been the patrons of the famous Galileo Galilei , who tutored multiple generations of Medici children and was an important figurehead for his patron's quest for power.
Galileo's patronage was eventually abandoned by Ferdinando II , when the Inquisition accused Galileo of heresy.
However, the Medici family did afford the scientist a safe haven for many years. Galileo named the four largest moons of Jupiter after four Medici children he tutored, although the names Galileo used are not the names currently used.
This extract shows the branch that gave rise to the celebrated branch of the Medici descending from Giovanni "di Bicci", who founded the Medici fortunes:.
This is the branch of Cosimo's brother, Lorenzo, called the "Popolano" Branch, which gave rise to the Grand-Dukes of Tuscany:.
The origin of the Medici coat of arms is not recorded. One unproven story traces their ancestry to a knight of Charlemagne's, Averardo, who defeated a giant, Mugello.
In reward, Charlemagne is said to have rewarded Averardo with the shield mauled by the giant, with the dents in the shape of balls, and the giant's lands in Mugello.
As an Italian vocabulary word, "medici" means "medical doctors". So, another fanciful story depicts the balls as pills or cupping glasses a late-medieval medical instrument used to draw blood.
The most likely theories, however, are that the balls originally represent coins copied from the coat of arms of the Guild of Moneychangers Arte del Cambio to which the Medici belonged.
That shield was red strewn with Byzantine coins bezants. It has also been argued that these coins referenced the three coins or golden balls associated with St.
Nicholas , particularly as the saint was invoked by Italian bankers as they took oaths. The "augmented coat of arms of the Medici, Or, five balls in orle gules, in chief a larger one of the arms of France viz.
Azure, three fleurs-de-lis or was granted by Louis XI in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Italian banking family and political dynasty.
For the pharmaceutical company, see Medicis Pharmaceutical. For other uses, see Medici disambiguation. Pope non-hereditary Grand Duke of Tuscany Duke of Florence Lord of Florence informal Duke of Urbino Duke of Nemours Prince of Ottajano Queen of France.
Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici Cosimo de' Medici Lorenzo de' Medici Pope Leo X Pope Clement VII Pope Leo XI Catherine de' Medici Cosimo I de' Medici Marie de' Medici.
House of Orsini House of Habsburg House of Lorraine House of Bourbon House of Valois House of La Tour d'Auveregne House of Wittelsbach. Festina lente .
Palazzo Vecchio Palazzo Pitti Palazzo Medici Riccardi Several villas in Tuscany. In the dangerous circumstances in which our city is placed, the time for deliberation is past.
Action must be taken I have decided, with your approval, to sail for Naples immediately, believing that as I am the person against whom the activities of our enemies are chiefly directed, I may, perhaps, by delivering myself into their hands, be the means of restoring peace to our fellow-citizens.
As I have had more honour and responsibility among you than any private citizen has had in our day, I am more bound than any other person to serve our country, even at the risk of my life.
With this intention I now go. Dies führte dazu, dass sie in ihrer Partei, anders als die Oligarchen, also die herrschende Elite um die Albizzi , eine zentrale und mächtige Position innehatten und nicht durch andere Familien erpressbar waren.
Giovanni di Bicci förderte Masaccio und beauftragte Filippo Brunelleschi mit dem Wiederaufbau der Basilica di San Lorenzo di Firenze , die zur Grablege der Medici wurde.
Ihr wichtigster Beitrag war jedoch die Förderung Michelangelos , der für eine Reihe von Familienmitgliedern arbeitete, beginnend mit Lorenzo il Magnifico, mit dem er den Mittagstisch teilte.
Über die reine Beauftragung von Künstlern hinaus waren die Medici auch erfolgreiche Sammler, deren Erwerbungen heute den Kern der Uffizien , des Kunstmuseums der Stadt Florenz, bilden.
Ende April begannen italienische Wissenschaftler unter der Leitung des Paläopathologen Gino Fornaciari damit, die Gräber von insgesamt 49 Mitgliedern der Familie zu öffnen.
Das Ziel sei es, die genauen Todesursachen, Krankheiten sowie Ernährungsgewohnheiten der Angehörigen zu erforschen. Zunächst wurden verschiedene Grabmäler in den Medici-Kapellen sowie in der Kirche San Lorenzo geöffnet.
Dabei wurde gleich zu Beginn der Untersuchungen eine sensationelle Entdeckung gemacht: Unter der Gruft von Gian Gastone wurde eine bislang nicht bekannte Krypta entdeckt, in der acht Leichen gefunden wurden.
Es wird angenommen, dass es sich dabei ebenfalls um Angehörige der Medici-Familie handelt. Obwohl das Projekt erst in der kommenden Zeit zu Ende gebracht sein wird, steht inzwischen fest, dass die Medici entgegen der gängigen Meinung nicht an Gicht , sondern an einer genetisch bedingten Form der Arthrose erkrankt waren.
An den Knochen von Eleonora von Toledo konnte man feststellen, dass sie vermutlich häufig geritten war.
Eine weitere überraschende Erkenntnis liegt darin, dass entgegen anderslautenden Behauptungen von Historikern des An dessen Skelett konnten keine Verletzungen gefunden werden.
He ruled for five years. In he was assassinated by a companion who was also a relative. Medici family Article Media Additional Info.
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