The future of Kurdish education depends to a large extent on the political situation in the Middle East. Political solutions are needed before educational problems. The series embraces a broad ethno-linguistic concept of "Kurdish", and contributions on closely related languages, or on linguistic topics relevant to the Kurdish-. The case of a year old Kurdish Syrian girl recruited to fight alongside local militias has highlighted ongoing concerns about the recruitment.
Underage girls recruited to Kurdish forcesKurdish women have been involved in film production, radio broadcasts and exhibitions, as well as in the production of a substantial number of. Turkish Rap has become very popular in recent years and is reaching mainstream audiences. Meanwhile Kurdish rap still remains. Request PDF | Kurdish, Turkish, German? Identificative integration of Kurds in Germany | Kurds have often been labelled a disruptive faction.
Kurdish Social organization VideoThe Kurdish Language
Hotel Bellevue Traben. - Bisher erschienene BändeBefinden Sie sich in Frankreich? The present state of knowledge about Kurdish allows, at least roughly, drawing the approximate borders of the areas where the main ethnic core of the speakers of the contemporary Kurdish dialects Organigramm Katholische Kirche formed. Retrieved 4 September Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Die Kurden sind Angehörige einer westasiatischen Ethnie, deren Hauptsiedlungsgebiet als Kurdistan bezeichnet wird. Sie bilden eine bedeutende autochthone ethnische Volksgruppe in der Türkei, im Irak, in Iran und Syrien. The future of Kurdish education depends to a large extent on the political situation in the Middle East. Political solutions are needed before educational problems. Informed by the interdisciplinary approach of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and theories of identity, nation, and media, the study investigates the ways Kurds,. Kurdish Music and Dance. Situated in the heart of Asia Minor, Kurdistan, country of the Kurds, covers vast regions, most of which are mountainous, extending.
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Kurd: The Kurdish language and traditional way of life. The Kurdish language is a West Iranian language related to Persian and Pashto.
The Kurds are thought to number from In March , Iraq announced a peace plan providing for Kurdish autonomy. The plan was to be implemented in four years.
Moreover, in March , Iraq and Iran signed the Algiers Accord , according to which Iran cut supplies to Iraqi Kurds.
Iraq started another wave of Arabization by moving Arabs to the oil fields in Kurdistan, particularly those around Kirkuk.
During the Iran—Iraq War in the s, the regime implemented anti-Kurdish policies and a de facto civil war broke out. Iraq was widely condemned by the international community, but was never seriously punished for oppressive measures such as the mass murder of hundreds of thousands of civilians, the wholesale destruction of thousands of villages and the deportation of thousands of Kurds to southern and central Iraq.
The genocidal campaign, conducted between and and culminating in , carried out by the Iraqi government against the Kurdish population was called Anfal "Spoils of War".
The Anfal campaign led to destruction of over two thousand villages and killing of , Kurdish civilians. After the collapse of the Kurdish uprising in March , Iraqi troops recaptured most of the Kurdish areas and 1.
It is estimated that close to 20, Kurds succumbed to death due to exhaustion, lack of food, exposure to cold and disease.
On 5 April , UN Security Council passed resolution which condemned the repression of Iraqi Kurdish civilians and demanded that Iraq end its repressive measures and allow immediate access to international humanitarian organizations.
In mid-April, the Coalition established safe havens inside Iraqi borders and prohibited Iraqi planes from flying north of 36th parallel.
In late October, Iraqi government retaliated by imposing a food and fuel embargo on the Kurds and stopping to pay civil servants in the Kurdish region.
The embargo, however, backfired and Kurds held parliamentary elections in May and established Kurdistan Regional Government KRG. The Kurdish population welcomed the American troops in by holding celebrations and dancing in the streets.
The authority of the KRG and legality of its laws and regulations were recognized in the articles and of the new Iraqi Constitution ratified in On 14 August , Yazidis were targeted in a series of bombings that became the deadliest suicide attack since the Iraq War began, killing civilians, wounding 1, They are mostly concentrated in the northeast and the north, but there are also significant Kurdish populations in Aleppo and Damascus.
Kurds often speak Kurdish in public, unless all those present do not. According to Amnesty International , Kurdish human rights activists are mistreated and persecuted.
Techniques used to suppress the ethnic identity of Kurds in Syria include various bans on the use of the Kurdish language , refusal to register children with Kurdish names, the replacement of Kurdish place names with new names in Arabic , the prohibition of businesses that do not have Arabic names, the prohibition of Kurdish private schools, and the prohibition of books and other materials written in Kurdish.
In March , in part to avoid further demonstrations and unrest from spreading across Syria, the Syrian government promised to tackle the issue and grant Syrian citizenship to approximately , Kurds who had been previously denied the right.
On 12 March , beginning at a stadium in Qamishli a largely Kurdish city in northeastern Syria , clashes between Kurds and Syrians broke out and continued over a number of days.
At least thirty people were killed and more than injured. The unrest spread to other Kurdish towns along the northern border with Turkey, and then to Damascus and Aleppo.
As a result of Syrian civil war , since July , Kurds were able to take control of large parts of Syrian Kurdistan from Andiwar in extreme northeast to Jindires in extreme northwest Syria.
The Syrian Kurds started the Rojava Revolution in Kurdish-inhabited Afrin Canton has been occupied by Turkish Armed Forces and Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army since the Turkish military operation in Afrin in early Between , and , people were displaced due to the Turkish intervention.
In October , Turkey and the Syrian Interim Government began an offensive into Kurdish-populated areas in Syria, prompting about , civilians to flee from the area fearing that Turkey would commit an ethnic cleansing.
Between the s and s, Armenia was a part of the Soviet Union , within which Kurds, like other ethnic groups, had the status of a protected minority.
Armenian Kurds were permitted their own state-sponsored newspaper, radio broadcasts and cultural events.
During the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh , many non-Yazidi Kurds were forced to leave their homes since both the Azeri and non-Yazidi Kurds were Muslim.
In , two Kurdish-inhabited areas of Jewanshir capital Kalbajar and eastern Zangazur capital Lachin were combined to form the Kurdistan Okrug or "Red Kurdistan".
The period of existence of the Kurdish administrative unit was brief and did not last beyond Kurds subsequently faced many repressive measures, including deportations, imposed by the Soviet government.
As a result of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict , many Kurdish areas have been destroyed and more than , Kurds have been deported since by separatist Armenian forces.
According to a report by the Council of Europe , approximately 1. The earliest immigrants were Kurds from Turkey, who settled in Germany , Austria , the Benelux countries, the United Kingdom , Switzerland and France during the s.
Successive periods of political and social turmoil in the region during the s and s brought new waves of Kurdish refugees, mostly from Iran and Iraq under Saddam Hussein, came to Europe.
Since the beginning of the turmoil in Syria many of the refugees of the Syrian Civil War are Syrian Kurds and as a result many of the current Syrian asylum seekers in Germany are of Kurdish descent.
There was substantial immigration of ethnic Kurds in Canada and the United States , who are mainly political refugees and immigrants seeking economic opportunity.
According to a Statistics Canada household survey, there were 11, people of Kurdish ethnic background living in Canada ,  and according to the Census, 10, Canadians spoke Kurdish languages.
As a whole, the Kurdish people are adherents to various religions and creeds, perhaps constituting the most religiously diverse people of West Asia.
Traditionally, Kurds have been known to take great liberties with their practices. This sentiment is reflected in the saying "Compared to the unbeliever, the Kurd is a Muslim ".
Today, the majority of Kurds are Sunni Muslim , and follow the Shafi school. The Kurdish following of Shafi jurisprudence has caused some tension when pushed up against the Sunni Turks or Arabs who subscribe to the Hanafi school.
The majority of Sunni Muslim Kurds belonging to the Shafi school speak the Northern Kurdish Kurmanji dialect. There is also a significant minority of Kurds who are Shia Muslims.
Most sources relate that Kurds located within the borders of Iran are Shias,    who primarily living in the Ilam , Kermanshah and Khorasan provinces of Iran ; the other Shia Kurds are often in eastern Iraq Feyli Kurds as well as Shia Kurds who are in Syria and especially in Turkey.
Mystical practices and participation in Sufi orders are also widespread among Kurds,  with prominent Kurdish Sufi saints including Piryones.
Among the Qizilbash , the militant groups which predate the Alevis and helped establish the Safavid Dynasty , there were numerous Kurdish tribes.
The American missionary Stephen van Renssalaer Trowbridge, working at Aintab present Gaziantep reported  that his Alevi acquaintances considered as their highest spiritual leaders an Ahl-i Haqq sayyid family in the Guran district.
Ahl-i Haqq or Yarsanism is a syncretic religion founded by Sultan Sahak in the late 14th century in western Iran. Most of its adherents, estimated at around ,  or 1 million,  are found primarily in western Iran and eastern Iraq and are mostly ethnic Goran Kurds ,    though there are also smaller groups of Persian , Lori , Azeri and Arab adherents.
In this text, the religion's basic pillars are summarized as: "The Yarsan should strive for these four qualities: purity, rectitude, self-effacement and self-abnegation".
The Yarsan faith's unique features include millenarism , nativism , egalitarianism , metempsychosis , angelology , divine manifestation and dualism.
Many of these features are found in Yazidism , another Kurdish faith, in the faith of Zoroastrians and in ghulat non-mainstream Shia groups; certainly, the names and religious terminology of the Yarsan are often explicitly of Muslim origin.
Unlike other indigenous Persianate faiths, the Yarsan explicitly reject class, caste and rank, which sets them apart from the Yazidis and Zoroastrians.
The Ahl-i Haqq consider the Bektashi and Alevi as kindred communities. Yazidism is another syncretic religion practiced among Kurdish communities, founded by Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir , a 12th-century mystic from Lebanon.
Their numbers exceed ,, with some estimates numbering them at 1. According to Yazidi beliefs, God created the world but left it in the care of seven holy beings or angels.
Yazidis believe in the periodic reincarnation of the seven holy beings in human form. Yazidis who marry non-Yazidis are automatically considered to be converted to the religion of their spouse and therefore are not permitted to call themselves Yazidis.
They live primarily in Iraq's Nineveh Governorate. Their holiest shrine and the tomb of the faith's founder is located in Lalish , in northern Iraq.
The Iranian religion of Zoroastrianism has had a major influence on the Iranian culture, which Kurds are a part of, and has maintained some effect since the demise of the religion in the Middle Ages.
The Iranian philosopher Sohrevardi drew heavily from Zoroastrian teachings. Leading characteristics, such as messianism , the Golden Rule , heaven and hell , and free will influenced other religious systems, including Second Temple Judaism , Gnosticism , Christianity , and Islam.
In , the first official Zoroastrian fire temple of Iraqi Kurdistan opened in Sulaymaniyah. Attendees celebrated the occasion by lighting a ritual fire and beating the frame drum or 'daf'.
Although historically there have been various accounts of Kurdish Christians , most often these were in the form of individuals, and not as communities.
However, in the 19th and 20th century various travel logs tell of Kurdish Christian tribes, as well as Kurdish Muslim tribes who had substantial Christian populations living amongst them.
A significant number of these were allegedly originally Armenian or Assyrian ,  and it has been recorded that a small number of Christian traditions have been preserved.
Several Christian prayers in Kurdish have been found from earlier centuries. Segments of the Bible were first made available in the Kurdish language in in the Kurmanji dialect.
The Gospels were translated by Stepan, an Armenian employee of the American Bible Society and were published in Prominent historical Kurdish Christians include the brothers Zakare and Ivane Mkhargrdzeli.
Kurdish culture is a legacy from the various ancient peoples who shaped modern Kurds and their society. As most other Middle Eastern populations, a high degree of mutual influences between the Kurds and their neighbouring peoples are apparent.
Therefore, in Kurdish culture elements of various other cultures are to be seen. However, on the whole, Kurdish culture is closest to that of other Iranian peoples , in particular those who historically had the closest geographical proximity to the Kurds, such as the Persians and Lurs.
Kurds, for instance, also celebrate Newroz 21 March as New Year's Day. A madrasa system was used before the modern era.
In general, Kurdish women's rights and equality have improved in the 20th and 21st centuries due to progressive movements within Kurdish society.
However, despite the progress, Kurdish and international women's rights organizations still report problems related to gender equality , forced marriages , honor killings and in Iraqi Kurdistan also female genital mutilation FGM.
The Kurds possess a rich tradition of folklore, which, until recent times, was largely transmitted by speech or song, from one generation to the next.
Although some of the Kurdish writers' stories were well known throughout Kurdistan; most of the stories told and sung were only written down in the 20th and 21st centuries.
Many of these are, allegedly, centuries old. Widely varying in purpose and style, among the Kurdish folklore one will find stories about nature, anthropomorphic animals, love, heroes and villains, mythological creatures and everyday life.
A number of these mythological figures can be found in other cultures, like the Simurgh and Kaveh the Blacksmith in the broader Iranian Mythology , and stories of Shahmaran throughout Anatolia.
Additionally, stories can be purely entertaining, or have an educational or religious aspect. Perhaps the most widely reoccurring element is the fox, which, through cunning and shrewdness triumphs over less intelligent species, yet often also meets his demise.
Storytellers would perform in front of an audience, sometimes consisting of an entire village. People from outside the region would travel to attend their narratives, and the storytellers themselves would visit other villages to spread their tales.
These would thrive especially during winter, where entertainment was hard to find as evenings had to be spent inside.
Coinciding with the heterogeneous Kurdish groupings, although certain stories and elements were commonly found throughout Kurdistan, others were unique to a specific area; depending on the region, religion or dialect.
The Kurdish Jews of Zakho are perhaps the best example of this; their gifted storytellers are known to have been greatly respected throughout the region, thanks to a unique oral tradition.
In , the language was decriminalized, yet the now highly available radios and TV's had as an effect a diminished interest in traditional storytelling.
Kurdish weaving is renowned throughout the world, with fine specimens of both rugs and bags. The most famous Kurdish rugs are those from the Bijar region , in the Kurdistan Province.
Because of the unique way in which the Bijar rugs are woven, they are very stout and durable, hence their appellation as the 'Iron Rugs of Persia'.
Exhibiting a wide variety, the Bijar rugs have patterns ranging from floral designs, medallions and animals to other ornaments.
They generally have two wefts , and are very colorful in design. Another well-known Kurdish rug is the Senneh rug, which is regarded as the most sophisticated of the Kurdish rugs.
They are especially known for their great knot density and high-quality mountain wool. Throughout other Kurdish regions like Kermanshah , Siirt , Malatya and Bitlis rugs were also woven to great extent.
Kurdish bags are mainly known from the works of one large tribe: the Jaffs , living in the border area between Iran and Iraq. These Jaff bags share the same characteristics of Kurdish rugs; very colorful, stout in design, often with medallion patterns.
They were especially popular in the West during the s and s. Outside of weaving and clothing, there are many other Kurdish handicrafts , which were traditionally often crafted by nomadic Kurdish tribes.
These are especially well known in Iran, most notably the crafts from the Kermanshah and Sanandaj regions. Among these crafts are chess boards, talismans, jewelry, ornaments, weaponry, instruments etc.
Kurdish blades include a distinct jambiya , with its characteristic I-shaped hilt, and oblong blade. Generally, these possess double-edged blades, reinforced with a central ridge, a wooden, leather or silver decorated scabbard, and a horn hilt, furthermore they are often still worn decoratively by older men.
Swords were made as well. Most of these blades in circulation stem from the 19th century. Another distinct form of art from Sanandaj is 'Oroosi', a type of window where stylized wooden pieces are locked into each other, rather than being glued together.
These are further decorated with coloured glass, this stems from an old belief that if light passes through a combination of seven colours it helps keep the atmosphere clean.
Among Kurdish Jews a common practice was the making of talismans, which were believed to combat illnesses and protect the wearer from malevolent spirits.
Adorning the body with tattoos deq in Kurdish is widespread among the Kurds; even though permanent tattoos are not permissible in Sunni Islam. Therefore, these traditional tattoos are thought to derive from pre-Islamic times.
Tattoo ink is made by mixing soot with breast milk and the poisonous liquid from the gall bladder of an animal. The design is drawn on the skin using a thin twig and is, by needle, penetrated under the skin.
These have a wide variety of meanings and purposes, among which are protection against evil or illnesses; beauty enhancement; and the showing of tribal affiliations.
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Varieties of Kurdish There are a number of varieties of Kurdish, which are not mutually intelligible.
Written Kurdish Kurdish began to appear in writing in a version of the Persian alphabet during the 7th century AD. In Syria , on the other hand, publishing materials in Kurdish is forbidden,  though this prohibition is not enforced any more due to the Syrian civil war.
Before August , the Turkish government placed severe restrictions on the use of Kurdish, prohibiting the language in education and broadcast media.
However, the Turkish government said that they must avoid showing children's cartoons , or educational programs that teach Kurdish, and could broadcast only for 45 minutes a day or four hours a week.
The channel uses the X , W , and Q letters during broadcasting. However, most of these restrictions on private Kurdish television channels were relaxed in September Also Imams began to deliver Friday sermons in Kurdish and Esnaf price tags in Kurdish.
Many mayors were tried for issuing public documents in Kurdish language. Previously, Kurdish education had only been possible in private institutions.
In Iran , though it is used in some local media and newspapers, it is not used in public schools. In Kyrgyzstan , The Kurdish language has been written using four different writing systems.
In Iraq and Iran it is written using an Arabic script , composed by Sa'id Kaban Sedqi. More recently, it is sometimes written with a Latin alphabet in Iraq.
In Turkey, Syria, and Armenia , it is now written using a Latin script. Kurdish was also written in the Arabic script in Turkey and Syria until Kurdish in the former USSR is written with a Cyrillic alphabet.
Kurdish has even been written in the Armenian alphabet in Soviet Armenia and in the Ottoman Empire a translation of the Gospels in  and of all New Testament in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Northwestern Iranian dialect continuum. Language family. Indo-European Indo-Iranian Iranian Western Northwestern Kurdish.
Writing system. Armenia . Map of Kurdish-speaking areas of West Asia. Part of a series on: Kurdish history and Kurdish culture.
List of Kurds. Homeland Kurdistan Turkey Northern Kurdistan Iran Eastern Kurdistan Iraq Southern Kurdistan Syria Western Kurdistan Diaspora Armenia Australia Azerbaijan Belgium Canada Czech Republic Denmark France Georgia Germany Greece Iraq Iran Ireland Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Lebanon Netherlands New Zealand Norway Palestine Pakistan Russia Syria Sweden Turkmenistan Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom United States.
History of the Kurds. Kurdish culture Clothing Cuisine Celebrations Dance Flag Historical sites Language Folklore Literature Music Kurdish philosophers.
Ancient history. Karduchian dynasties Corduene Zabdicene Cyrtians Moxoene Kayusids. Medieval history. Shahrizor Sadakiyans Mir Jafar Dasni Aishanids Daisam Shaddadids Rawadids Hasanwayhids Annazids Marwanids Hadhabani Hazaraspids Ayyubids Zands Badlis Ardalan Badinan Soran Mokryan Baban.
Modern history. Kurdish languages Kurmanji Sorani Xwarin Zaza Laki Gorani. Main articles: Zaza language and Gorani language. Further information: Kurdish phonology.
Main article: Kurdish grammar. Main article: Kurdish alphabets. Kurdistan portal Language portal. Ethnologue estimates for dialect groups: Northern: Languages of Iran.
Retrieved 25 May Soviet Asian Ethnic Frontiers. Pergamon Press. Their reputation for military prowess has made them much in demand as mercenaries in many armies.
The sultan Saladin , best known to the Western world for exploits in the Crusades , epitomizes the Kurdish military reputation. The principal unit in traditional Kurdish society was the tribe , typically led by a sheikh or an aga, whose rule was firm.
Detribalization proceeded intermittently as Kurdish culture became urbanized and was nominally assimilated into several nations. In traditional Kurdish society, marriage was generally endogamous.
In nonurban areas, practices such as arranged marriage and child marriage are common. Households typically consist of father, mother, and children.
Polygamy , permitted by Islamic law , is sometimes practiced, although in Turkey it is forbidden by civil law.
Along with Kurdish men, Kurdish women—who traditionally have been more active in public life than Turkish, Arab , and Iranian women, especially in prerevolutionary Iran—have taken advantage of urban educational and employment opportunities.
Kurdish nationalism came about through the conjunction of a variety of factors, including the British introduction of the concept of private property, the partition of regions of Kurdish settlement by modern neighbouring states, and the influence of British, U.
These factors and others combined with the flowering of a nationalist movement among a very small minority of urban, intellectual Kurds.